Bourdieu on Sex and Domination

A political sociology of the sexual act would show that, as is always the case in a relation of domination, the practices and representations of the two sexes are in no way symmetrical. Not only because, even in contemporary European and American societies, young men and women have very different points of view on the love relation, which men most often conceive in terms of conquest (especially in conversations between friends, which give a prominent place to boasting about female conquests), but also because the sexual act itself is seen by men as a form of domination, appropriation, ‘possession’. Hence the discrepancy between the probable expectations of men and women as regards sexuality -and the misunderstandings, linked to misinterpretation of sometimes deliberately ambiguous or deceptive ‘signals’, which result from this. In contrast to women, who are socially prepared to see sexuality as an intimate and emotionally highly charged experience which does not necessarily include penetration but which can contain a wide range of activities (talking, touching, caressing, embracing, etc.), men are inclined to compartmentalize sexuality, which is conceived as an aggressive and essentially physical act of conquest oriented towards penetration and orgasm. And although, on this point like all the others, there are of course very great variations according to social position, age -and previous experience -it can be inferred from a series of interviews that apparently symmetrical practices (such as fellatio and cunnilingus) tend to have very different significance for men (who are inclined to see them as acts of domination, through the submission and pleasure obtained) and for women. Male pleasure is, in part, enjoyment of female pleasure, of the power to give pleasure; and so Catherine MacKinnon is no doubt right to see the faking of orgasm as a perfect example of the male power to make the interaction between the sexes conform to the view of it held by men, who expect the female orgasm to provide a proof of their virility and the pleasure derived from this extreme form of submission. Similarly, sexual harassment does not always aim at the sexual possession that seems to be its exclusive goal: in some cases it may aim at sheer possession, the pure affirmation of domination in its pure state…
…If the sexual relation appears as a social relation of domination, this is because it is constructed through the fundamental principle of division between the active male and the passive female and because this principle creates, organizes, expresses and directs desire -male desire as the desire for possession, eroticized domination, and female desire as the desire for masculine domination, as eroticized subordination or even, in the limiting case, as the eroticized recognition of domination” (Bourdieu, 2001: 20-1)

BOURDIEU, P. 2001. Masculine Domination, Stanford University Press.

 

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The Link Between Slut-Shaming, Bullying, & Femininity

Good clear post that I have reblogged from Gender & Society on the symbolic violence of femininity and its links to bullying. Ties in nicely with a forthcoming podcast I intend to do on links between masculinity, heteronormativity, sexual oppression and symbolic violence.

Gender & Society

by Sarah Miller

Recent reports in both Slate and Time, focus on research (here) that illuminates how young women use slut-shaming to make multi-directional class distinctions. Authors Elizabeth Armstrong, Laura Hamilton and colleagues find that among white college women, those with low status judge high status peers for being “rich, bitchy sluts,” while high status women claim to be “classy” by designating low status peers “trashy.” Ultimately, while slut slander may appear to be equal opportunity, the outcomes are not: slut-shaming has less of a lasting impact on women with more resources. The research adds insight into why the slut remains a persistent threat in young women’s lives- they have something to gain from using this term against one another. However, slut-shaming does not begin in college (nor with girls themselves), and its’ ramifications can be serious, as the rape victim-blaming that generated Slutwalk, and numerous…

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Bourdieu on Gender and Domination: Extract 1 from ‘Sociology is a Martial Art’

Interviewer 1: So, reading ‘Masculine Domination’ one could think that men, too, are victims of this domination.

PB: Yes

Interviewer 1:  So how do you explain why they don’t change? Is it that they can’t?

PB: Let’s not overstate this. They’re victims only in a relative way. There’s a phrase written by Virginia Woolf, I think, which says that they play the best role. In French we say: “They have the good part, they always come off best.” Which means that they’re visible, that, like in a theatre play, men have the leading roles. This has many advantages.They are visible, whereas women are invisible. They speak, whereas women keep quiet. But there’s a price to pay for playing the lead role. Now, why don’t things change? Of course things are changing but a lot less than one might think. The reason is that it all happens at a deeply unconscious level. In French we’re always saying, “It’s stronger than I am”. …  it means, “I can’t help myself.” It’s stronger than I am. I remember when my mother got old, if I told her off, she’d say to me, “I’m too old for you to change me”. It’s stronger than I am.

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